A Banarasi saree, often spelled as “Banarasi sari” or “Benarasi saree,” is a traditional Indian women’s garment that hails from the city of Varanasi (also known as Banaras) in the northern state of Uttar Pradesh, India.

These sarees are renowned for their rich and intricate designs, luxurious silk fabric, and exquisite craftsmanship.

Some key features of Banarasi saree

Silk Fabric-Banarasi saree

 Banarasi sarees are primarily made of high-quality silk, which lends them a lustrous and opulent appearance.

Pure silk is preferred, but you can also find Banarasi sarees made from blended fabrics.

Zari Work in Banarasi saree

The hallmark of Banarasi sarees is the extensive use of zari (gold or silver metallic thread) work. The intricate patterns and motifs are woven into the fabric with zari, creating a stunning and regal look.

Patterns and Motifs

 Banarasi sarees often feature traditional Indian designs such as paisley, floral patterns, elephants, peacocks, and more. These motifs are woven into the saree’s body, border, and pallu (the decorative end of the saree).

Brocade Weaving

 The weaving technique used in creating Banarasi sarees is known as brocade weaving. This involves weaving the zari and silk threads together to create intricate and ornate patterns.


 There are several types of Banarasi sarees, each with its unique characteristics. Some of the popular ones include Katan, Organza, Georgette, and Shattir. Each type of Banarasi saree has its own distinct texture and appearance.


 Banarasi sarees are typically worn on special occasions like weddings, festivals, and other formal events. They are considered a symbol of grace and elegance and are often chosen as bridal attire.

Color Palette

While Banarasi sarees are available in a wide range of colors, traditional shades like red, gold, and maroon are quite popular for bridal wear. However, modern Banarasi sarees come in various contemporary colors as well.

Price Range

The price of a Banarasi saree can vary widely depending on factors like the quality of silk, intricacy of the zari work, and the reputation of the weaver or brand. Some Banarasi sarees can be quite expensive due to their craftsmanship and materials.

Banarasi sarees are not only a symbol of Indian tradition and culture but also a testament to the exquisite skills of the weavers in Varanasi. They are cherished heirlooms and are often passed down through generations as prized possessions. Wearing a Banarasi saree is not just about clothing; it’s a statement of elegance and tradition.

History of Banarasi Saree

The history of Banarasi sarees is a rich tapestry that spans centuries, and these sarees have become an integral part of Indian culture and heritage. Here is a brief overview of the history of Banarasi sarees:

Ancient Roots with Banarasi saree

 The tradition of weaving silk in Varanasi (formerly known as Banaras) can be traced back to ancient times, with references to silk textiles in the Rigveda, one of the oldest sacred texts of India. Silk weaving was already a flourishing industry in Varanasi over 2,000 years ago.

Mughal Influence

 The real transformation of Banarasi silk sarees began during the Mughal era, particularly during the reign of Emperor Akbar (16th century). Akbar’s patronage of the arts and his encouragement of Persian motifs and designs greatly influenced the weaving techniques and patterns of Banarasi sarees. The Mughals introduced intricate floral and geometric patterns, as well as the use of zari (gold and silver threads), which became a hallmark of Banarasi sarees.

Royal Patronage

Banarasi sarees gained immense popularity among the Indian royalty, and they became a symbol of aristocracy and opulence. The sarees were highly sought after by queens and princesses for their weddings and special occasions.

British Period

During the British colonial era in India, the Banarasi saree industry faced challenges due to the decline in royal patronage and the introduction of machine-made textiles. However, the weavers in Varanasi adapted to changing times and continued to produce high-quality handmade silk sarees.

Post-Independence Revival

 After India gained independence in 1947, there was a renewed interest in traditional Indian crafts and textiles. This period saw a revival of the Banarasi saree industry, and the government actively supported and promoted the weavers of Varanasi.

Banarasi saree granted Geographical Indication (GI) Status 

In 2009, Banarasi silk sarees were granted Geographical Indication (GI) status, recognizing them as a unique and authentic product of the Varanasi region. This legal protection helps safeguard the identity and heritage of Banarasi sarees.

Modern Times

 Today, Banarasi sarees continue to be a symbol of elegance and are highly sought after for weddings, festivals, and special occasions. They have also found international recognition and are worn by people around the world who appreciate their beauty and craftsmanship.

Despite the challenges faced by traditional handloom industries in the face of modernization and mechanization, Banarasi sarees have endured and evolved. They remain a testament to the skill, artistry, and cultural heritage of the weavers of Varanasi, and their timeless appeal ensures that they continue to be cherished by generations of women.

Varieties of Banarasi sarees

Banarasi sarees come in a variety of types and styles, each with its own unique characteristics and weaving techniques. Here are some of the most popular varieties of Banarasi sarees:

Katan Banarasi Saree

 Katan silk is a plain woven silk fabric used for making Banarasi sarees. These sarees are known for their fine texture and are typically adorned with intricate zari work, making them suitable for weddings and formal occasions.

Organza Banarasi Saree

 Organza is a lightweight and sheer fabric that is often used as the base for Banarasi sarees. These sarees have a delicate appearance and are decorated with zari and resham (silk) embroidery, making them ideal for summer and festive wear.

Georgette Banarasi Saree

 Georgette Banarasi sarees combine the rich heritage of Banarasi weaving with the lightweight and flowing quality of georgette fabric. They are known for their comfort and drape and are often embellished with zari, sequins, and stone work.

Shattir Banarasi Saree

 Shattir silk is a variant of Banarasi sarees that features a distinctive matte finish. These sarees are characterized by their muted sheen and often showcase traditional motifs and zari work.

Tanchoi Banarasi Saree

 Tanchoi is a weaving technique that originated in China but was adapted and perfected by Banarasi weavers. These sarees are known for their intricate, multicolored patterns and are woven with silk and zari.

Jangla Banarasi Saree

Jangla refers to a particular style of weaving that includes intricate jangla motifs. These sarees often feature elaborate patterns of birds, animals, and floral designs woven into the fabric using zari.

Jamdani Banarasi Saree

 Jamdani is a weaving technique where the design motifs are woven directly into the fabric. While this technique is more commonly associated with Bengal, Banarasi sarees also incorporate Jamdani work, typically in combination with zari.

Tissue Banarasi Saree

Tissue Banarasi sarees are characterized by their metallic appearance, achieved through the use of metallic threads in the weaving process. They are often lightweight and suitable for grand occasions.

Butidar Banarasi Saree

 Butidar sarees are embellished with tiny butis (motifs) woven all over the saree. These motifs can be in the form of flowers, leaves, or other geometric shapes, and they add a subtle elegance to the saree.

Satin Banarasi Saree

Satin Banarasi sarees have a smooth and glossy surface. They are known for their luxurious look and feel and are often chosen for special events and weddings.

Each of these varieties of Banarasi sarees showcases the artistry and craftsmanship of the weavers in Varanasi. The choice of Banarasi saree often depends on the occasion, personal style preferences, and the level of opulence one desires. These sarees continue to be treasured as heirlooms and are a symbol of Indian tradition and culture.

Importance of Banarasi sarees  in Varanasi

Banarasi sarees hold immense importance in the city of Varanasi (also known as Banaras), both culturally and economically. Here are some key aspects of their significance in Varanasi:

Economic Livelihood

 The handloom industry in Varanasi, particularly the production of Banarasi sarees, is a significant source of livelihood for a large number of weavers and artisans in the region. The weaving of Banarasi sarees has been a traditional occupation passed down through generations, and it provides employment opportunities for many families in Varanasi.

Banarasi saree is Cultural Heritage

 Banarasi sarees are an integral part of Varanasi’s cultural heritage. They represent the city’s centuries-old weaving tradition and craftsmanship. These sarees are not just garments but also a symbol of the city’s rich cultural legacy.


 Varanasi is a popular tourist destination, and Banarasi sarees play a role in attracting tourists interested in Indian textiles and culture. Visitors often seek out Banarasi saree showrooms and workshops to learn about the weaving process and purchase authentic sarees as souvenirs.

Traditional Attire

 Banarasi sarees are a preferred choice for special occasions, festivals, weddings, and other cultural celebrations in Varanasi. They are considered auspicious and are worn by brides during their wedding ceremonies. These sarees hold deep cultural and religious significance in various rituals.

Export Industry

The Banarasi saree industry is not limited to domestic consumption. These sarees are exported to many countries around the world, contributing to India’s textile export industry. The international demand for Banarasi sarees helps generate revenue for Varanasi and the country as a whole.

Preservation of Traditional Crafts

The making of Banarasi sarees involves intricate weaving techniques, often passed down within families. By continuing to produce these sarees, artisans and weavers in Varanasi are preserving traditional handloom skills and craftsmanship, ensuring that these skills are not lost to modernization.

Geographical Indication (GI) Status

 The recognition of Banarasi sarees as a Geographical Indication (GI) product has further cemented their importance. This legal protection ensures that only sarees produced in the Varanasi region can bear the “Banarasi” label, protecting the authenticity and heritage of the craft.

In summary, Banarasi sarees are not just garments; they are a vital part of Varanasi’s identity, culture, and economy. They showcase the city’s artistic and weaving traditions, provide employment opportunities, attract tourists, and contribute to the preservation of traditional crafts. This timeless attire continues to be cherished by both locals and people worldwide, making Varanasi synonymous with the artistry of Banarasi sarees.

weavers of Banarasi sarees

The weavers of Banarasi sarees, often referred to as “Karigars” or artisans, are highly skilled craftsmen and women who have been practicing the art of weaving these exquisite sarees for generations. Here are some key points about the weavers of Banarasi sarees:

Traditional Craftsmanship

Weaving Banarasi sarees is a labor-intensive and intricate craft that requires a deep understanding of the weaving process. Many of these weavers come from families with a long history of involvement in the handloom industry.

Generational Expertise

The art of weaving Banarasi sarees is often passed down within families. Parents teach their children the craft from a young age, ensuring that the skills and techniques are preserved and perfected through generations.

Handloom Weaving

 Banarasi sarees are typically woven on handlooms, and the weavers meticulously create the intricate patterns and motifs using silk and metallic threads, such as zari. This painstaking process involves both physical skill and artistic creativity.

Cooperative Work

 In many cases, the weaving of a Banarasi saree is a collaborative effort. Different artisans may be responsible for different aspects of the saree, such as the body, border, and pallu, each contributing their specialized skills.

Local Communities

 Weaving Banarasi sarees is a significant source of income for many communities in and around Varanasi. These communities are often closely connected to the traditional weaving clusters and cooperatives in the region.


 While the craft of weaving Banarasi sarees is highly esteemed, weavers face various challenges, including economic pressures, competition from machine-made textiles, and the need to adapt to changing market demands while preserving their traditional techniques.

Artistic Innovation

 Despite the challenges, many weavers are known for their creativity and innovation. They adapt traditional designs to contemporary tastes and experiment with new patterns and color combinations to appeal to a wider audience.

Recognition and Support

 Various governmental and non-governmental organizations, as well as craft promotion agencies, provide support and training to Banarasi saree weavers. Initiatives are aimed at improving their livelihoods, preserving their heritage, and ensuring fair wages.

Geographical Indication (GI) Status

 The recognition of Banarasi sarees as a Geographical Indication (GI) product acknowledges the specific geographic origin and traditional craftsmanship involved. It helps protect the identity and heritage of these sarees and ensures that they are not imitated or misrepresented.

The weavers of Banarasi sarees are the backbone of this rich tradition, and their dedication to their craft plays a crucial role in preserving the cultural and artistic heritage of Varanasi. Their skill and craftsmanship are celebrated not only in India but also globally, making Banarasi sarees a symbol of fine artistry and tradition.

threats on weavers of Banarasi sarees

The weavers of Banarasi sarees face several challenges and threats to their livelihoods and the traditional craft. These challenges have evolved over time and continue to impact the weaving community in Varanasi. Some of the key threats and challenges include:

Economic Pressures

Economic instability and fluctuating incomes are significant concerns for Banarasi saree weavers. The handloom industry often faces competition from cheaper machine-made textiles, which can lead to reduced demand for handwoven sarees.

Lack of Access to Credit and Resources

Many weavers struggle to access credit and resources necessary for their craft. This lack of financial support can limit their ability to invest in raw materials, upgrade their equipment, and sustain their businesses.

Exploitative Middlemen

 In some cases, weavers are exploited by middlemen who pay them unfairly low wages for their work. These middlemen may also dictate the design and patterns, leaving the weavers with limited creative freedom.

Changing Consumer Preferences

 As fashion trends evolve, traditional Banarasi sarees may face challenges in adapting to modern consumer preferences. Some weavers are exploring ways to incorporate contemporary designs and colors to appeal to a wider audience.

Competition from Power Looms: Power looms and machine-made textiles can produce sarees more quickly and at a lower cost than handloom weaving. This competition can affect the demand for handmade Banarasi sarees.

Skill Migration

 Younger generations of weavers may be reluctant to continue in the family tradition due to the challenges and uncertainties associated with the handloom industry. Many young weavers are seeking alternative employment opportunities.

Artificial Silk and Materials

 The availability of artificial silk and synthetic materials has made it more affordable for consumers to purchase sarees that imitate the appearance of traditional Banarasi silk sarees. This can reduce demand for authentic silk Banarasi sarees.

Lack of Training and Innovation

 Traditional weaving techniques and designs need to evolve to remain relevant. Weavers may require training and support to incorporate innovative elements into their work and adapt to changing market trends.

Environmental Concerns

The dyeing and finishing processes in the textile industry can have negative environmental impacts. Weavers may face challenges in adopting eco-friendly practices while remaining competitive.

Health and Working Conditions

 Some weavers work in suboptimal conditions that can impact their health and well-being. Ensuring safe and healthy working conditions is a crucial aspect of supporting the weaving community.

Efforts are being made by both government and non-government organizations to address these challenges and support the weavers of Banarasi sarees. Initiatives include providing financial assistance, promoting fair trade practices, offering design and marketing support, and improving access to markets. Additionally, the recognition of Banarasi sarees as a Geographical Indication (GI) product helps protect the heritage and authenticity of this traditional craft.

Environmental concerns regarding Banarasi sarees 

The production of Banarasi sarees, like many other textile industries, raises several environmental concerns. While these sarees are renowned for their beauty and craftsmanship, their production can have ecological impacts. Here are some environmental concerns associated with Banarasi sarees:

Chemical Dyes

 The dyeing process for silk sarees often involves the use of synthetic dyes that can contain harmful chemicals and heavy metals. Improper disposal of dye wastewater can pollute water bodies and harm aquatic ecosystems.

Water Consumption

 The dyeing and finishing processes in the textile industry are water-intensive. The excessive use of water for dyeing and washing silk fabrics can strain local water resources, particularly in regions where water scarcity is a concern.

Energy Consumption

 Traditional handloom weaving requires manual labor and minimal energy use. However, the use of power looms, which are increasingly common in the textile industry, can significantly increase energy consumption and contribute to greenhouse gas emissions if the energy source is not sustainable.

Waste Generation

 The production process generates waste, including leftover silk threads and trimmings. Proper disposal and management of this waste are essential to minimize environmental impact.

Chemical Finishes

Some Banarasi sarees undergo chemical finishing processes to enhance their shine or stiffness. These chemicals can be harmful to the environment and may require proper disposal and treatment.

Natural Resource Use

 Silk production relies on the cultivation of mulberry silkworms, which consume mulberry leaves. Large-scale silk production can lead to deforestation and the depletion of mulberry plant resources.

Packaging and Transportation

 The packaging and transportation of Banarasi sarees can contribute to environmental concerns, especially if non-sustainable materials and practices are used.

Waste from Zari Production

The production of zari, the metallic thread used in Banarasi sarees, involves various metals and processes that can generate waste and pollution if not managed properly.

Efforts are being made in the textile industry, including the Banarasi saree sector, to address these environmental concerns and adopt more sustainable practices. Some of the steps taken to mitigate the environmental impact include:

Use of Natural Dyes

 Some weavers and textile manufacturers are shifting towards the use of natural and eco-friendly dyes, reducing the environmental impact of dyeing processes.

Water Management

 Improved water management practices, such as water recycling and wastewater treatment, help reduce water consumption and minimize pollution.

Energy Efficiency

 Implementing energy-efficient technologies and utilizing renewable energy sources can reduce the carbon footprint of textile production.

Sustainable Silk Farming

 Sustainable practices in silk farming, including organic mulberry cultivation, can help protect natural resources and biodiversity.

Awareness and Certification

 Promoting awareness among consumers about sustainable and eco-friendly textiles and obtaining certifications for environmentally responsible practices can encourage more sustainable production methods.

While these efforts are positive steps towards reducing the environmental impact of Banarasi saree production, further initiatives and sustainable practices are needed to ensure the long-term sustainability of this traditional craft.

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