India is an ancient cultural country with the famous painting of India.

Hence, there is a unique fusion of folk art in art and culture.

Folk art is a mirror of the folk cultural traditions of any region or place.

Folk painting of India

Pass from generation to generation among the tribes and tribes of any region or place.  Let’s discuss this below.

1. Madhubani Painting

Madhubani Painting
Madhubani Painting

It is a prominent painting of the Mithilanchal regions like Darbhanga in Bihar, Madhubani, and Nepal and a Famous painting of India.

However, Jitwarpur village in the Madhubani district is the main center of this folk painting.

But In the early days, this painting developed into a rangoli,  later this art gradually descended into modern forms on clothes, walls, and paper. 

Firstly  Women of Mithila paint this painting.

Later men also start this painting.

Madhubani paintings are of two types – mural painting and aripan or alpana.

It is a custom to make it at three special places of the house.

For example, the place of worship, the Kohbar Room (in the room of the married), and on the house’s outer walls at weddings or any special celebration. 

However, The Gods and Goddesses depicted in Madhubani paintings are Maa Durga, Kali, Sita-Rama, Radha-Krishna, Shiva-Parvati, Gauri-Ganesha, and the ten avatars of Vishnu, etc.

Mahasundari Devi Madhubani is a famous artist of painting.

2. Pattachitra Art

‘Patta’ means ‘cloth’.

This is also a traditional painting of Odisha and a famous painting of India.

This painting depicts scenes related to the lives of Subhadra, Balarama, Lord Jagannath, Dashavatar, and Krishna.

3. Pithora Painting

It is a traditional painting of the Rathwas of Gujarati and the people of the Bhil tribe.

It is more than ritual.

4. Kalamkari Painting

‘Kalamkari’ literally means pictures made with a pen. It is a type of handicraft.

In which print with colored blocks on fabric.

Using penmanship is for both art and fabric.

This art is in Machilipatnam and Krishna district in the state of Andhra Pradesh, India.

5. Kalighat Painting

This painting origin in the Kalighat temple in Kolkata in the 19th century.

You see the characters of Hindu deities and traditional kimvadantis.

In ancient times, the painters of this art used to depict various gods and goddesses through this art by singing to the people in pat paintings.

 painters depict scenes based on the Ramayana, Mahabharata, and other kimvadantis in long papers and sing and explain the illustration.

Buddha’s various postures and hand signs and their meanings

6. Floor painting 

 The ancient cultural tradition and folk art of India. Different states have different names.

It is with dry and natural colors on auspicious occasions like festivals, fasts, puja, festive marriages, etc.

7. Worli painting

The name of this painting belongs to a small tribal class living in the tribal state of Maharashtra and a famous painting of India.

On the floors and walls of tribal houses, Worli paintings draw.

Places of worship such as Gond and Kol.

Trees, birds, males, and females together make a Worli picture perfection. Tribal women draw this painting.

The content of these paintings is predominantly religious.

Made using simple and local objects such as rice Lehi and gum of local vegetables.

Different color backgrounds through geometric shapes such as square, triangular and circular. goes.

The daily life of animals, birds, and people is also a partial form of the content of pictures.

Unlike other tribal art types, the Worli painting does not promote religious images and thus presents a more secular form.

8. Thanka painting

The painting is based on the life of Lord Buddha.

This painting is an exemplary example of Indian, Nepali, and Tibetan culture.

It Shows Tibetan religion, culture, and philosophical values​.

9. Tanjore painting

Tanjore’s painting has a very rich heritage.

It is the local art form of the city of Thanjavur in Tamil Nadu.

The pattern of art flourished in Thanjavur, the capital of the Chola dynasty, and has since gained such a name as Tanjore painting.

 Tanjore’s painting is essentially religious and spiritual.

The art is famous for its artistic depiction of mythological characters and subjects.

For example, the Brihadeeswarar temple has many paintings of Chola murals and Tanjore paintings in the form of hero paintings.

Even the Maratha palace is an ideal place to see these paintings.

Features of Tanjore painting

They are famous for their rich colors, external richness, and narrow works of art.

Tanjore paintings with precious stones, pieces of glass, and gold.

To incorporate the 3D effect, painters use limestone.

The paintings use canvas made of wood and cloth.

Tanjore’s painting comes in three finishes: Classic, Stamped, and Extraordinary.

Use high-quality 22-carat gold foil.

The pillars, dresses, arches, and throne of the Tanjore paintings are with gold leaves and gems of various colors.

Next, colors are on the sketch.

Use Dark brown for the outline.

Red background color but sometimes green is also used.

Earlier artists used natural colors made from vegetable dyes.

Departments of old Tanjore paintings were limited to pictures of divine figures.

But nowadays modern artists explore new dimensions.

They also begin depicting the presiding deities of famous temples.

Types of Tanjore painting

Thanjavur temples can be divided according to dynasties.

For example, murals came into prominence under the Chola rule.

As time paved the way for the rise of the Nayak dynasty, the limelight came into the hero paintings.

These paintings carried forward the aesthetic tradition of Vijayanagara art.

The Tanjore paintings once again modified themselves under Maratha’s rule.

However, The Marathas continued the heroine tradition of patronage.

There are several stages involved in making a Tanjore painting.

The first floor contains a depiction of the initial sketch of the image.

The base is made of a fabric, which is affixed to a wooden board.

10. Mugal painting

Mughal period paintings included events, paintings and court life scenes, hunting scenes, and examples of wildlife and fighting.

The theme of the Mughal painting

Mughal painting has a great variety, including portraits, scenes, court-life events, paintings depicting lovers in intimate places, etc.

It often revolves around themes such as battles, mythological stories, hunting scenes, wildlife, and royal life.

These paintings have also become an important medium for narrating long stories of Mughal emperors, mythology, etc.

Development of Mughal painting

However, Aurangzeb did not care much for the growth and development of Mughal paintings.

Nevertheless, Mughal paintings in India continued with some assistance from other patrons.

Gradually, due to less support, a decline began during Mughal paintings in India.

During the reign of Muhammad Shah, there was a small resurgence in Mughal paintings.

However, with the coming of Shah Alam II to power, the Mughal art form was already extinct and another form of painting began to develop in the form of Rajput paintings.

Today, miniature Mughal paintings by some artists in Rajasthan, mainly in Jaipur.

Although many miniatures have good copies of their origins, various artists have developed modern works, sometimes using classic methods, with excellent artistic effects.

11. Rajput painting

Rajput painting, also known as Rajasthani painting.

Developed and flourished in the royal courts of Rajputana in India.

Each Rajputana kingdom developed a distinct style, but with some general characteristics.

The Rajput paintings depict many themes, and epic events such as the Ramayana.

The placing of miniatures in manuscripts or single sheets in albums was a favorite medium of Rajput painting.

but many illustrations were made on the walls of palaces, the inner chambers of the forts, and the Havelis, particularly the construction of Shekhawati’s Havelis, forts, and palaces of Shekhawat.

Colors were extracted from certain minerals, plant sources, shells of conch shells, and even derived by processing precious stones.

Gold and silver were used.

The preparation of the desired colors was a long process, sometimes taking 2 weeks.

The brushes used were very good.

12. Gond painting

Gond painting is a form of painting of folk and tribal art and a famous painting of India.

While Gond paintings are believed to be mainly from Madhya Pradesh, it is also quite common in Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, Chhattisgarh, and Odisha.

Art has become so potent that the Indian government has stepped in to preserve their art for generations to enjoy.

Gond art is a tribal art form developed by the Gond tribe of central India.

The art is basically based on the hills, rivers, and forests in which the Gonds reside.

It is done in honor of festivals.

Moreover, this originated from an attempt to record folk and tribal stories, which were sung by poets and singers.

The Gonds traditionally painted on the mud walls of their houses.

Jungarh Singh Shyam was the first one to use paper and canvas.

His talent was soon recognized, and his work was displayed throughout the country.

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