Chhattisgarh is a state in central India.
It was formed on November 1, 2000, after the reorganization of the Madhya Pradesh state.
Let’s explore the geography of Chhattisgarh
Location-Geography of Chhattisgarh
Chhattisgarh is in the central part of India.
It is surrounded by seven states: Madhya Pradesh to the northwest, Maharashtra to the west, Andhra Pradesh to the south, Telangana to the southwest, Odisha to the southeast, Jharkhand to the northeast, and Uttar Pradesh to the north.
The total area of Chhattisgarh is approximately 135,194 square kilometers (52,199 square miles). This also makes it the 9th largest state in India in terms of land area.
Topography-Geography of Chhattisgarh
The topography of Chhattisgarh is diverse and consists of plateaus, plains, hills, and forests. Here are the main features of the state’s topography:
Chhattisgarh is predominantly on the Chhattisgarh Plain, which is part of the larger Deccan Plateau. The plateaus in Chhattisgarh have an average elevation ranging from 300 to 700 meters (984 to 2,297 feet) above sea level. These plateaus are by flat or gently undulating terrain.
The central and northern parts of Chhattisgarh are by fertile plains. The plains are by the alluvial deposits of rivers like Mahanadi, Indravati, Hasdeo, Shivnath, and Kharun. These plains are agriculturally productive and support the cultivation of crops such as paddy, wheat, maize, and oilseeds.
The southern part of Chhattisgarh is predominantly hilly, with the presence of various hill ranges. The Maikal Hills are in the northern part of the Bastar region and extend into Madhya Pradesh. The Bailadila Range, for its iron ore deposits, is located in the southwestern part of Chhattisgarh. These hill ranges add to the scenic beauty and natural diversity of the state.
Chhattisgarh is for its extensive forest cover, which adds to its topographical variety.
The state has significant forested areas that consist of tropical moist deciduous forests, tropical dry deciduous forests, and tropical thorn forests. The forests are home to a variety of flora and fauna and contribute to the state’s biodiversity.
The combination of plateaus, plains, hills, and forests in Chhattisgarh creates a diverse landscape with opportunities for agriculture, mining, and nature conservation.
The state’s topography is by plateaus, plains, hills, and forests. The southern part of Chhattisgarh is predominantly hilly, while the northern and central parts consist of fertile plains.
Forests and Wildlife
Chhattisgarh is known for its rich forest resources. The state has several national parks and wildlife sanctuaries, including Indravati National Park, Kanger Valley National Park, Barnawapara Wildlife Sanctuary, and Achanakmar Tiger Reserve. These protected areas are home to diverse flora and fauna, including tigers, leopards, elephants, and various species of birds.
Chhattisgarh experiences a subtropical climate with hot summers, monsoon rains, and mild winters. Summers (March to June) can be extremely hot, with temperatures often reaching over 40 degrees Celsius (104 degrees Fahrenheit). The monsoon season lasts from June to September, bringing ample rainfall to the region.
- Summers (March to June): Summers in Chhattisgarh are hot and dry, with temperatures often soaring above 40 degrees Celsius (104 degrees Fahrenheit). The hottest months are typically May and June. Heatwaves are not uncommon during this season.
- Monsoon Season (June to September): Chhattisgarh receives a significant amount of rainfall during the monsoon season, which lasts from June to September. The southwest monsoon winds bring moisture-laden clouds to the region, resulting in heavy rainfall. The average annual rainfall in the state ranges from about 1,000 to 1,400 millimeters (39 to 55 inches). The monsoon rainfall is crucial for agriculture in the state.
- Post-Monsoon Season (October and November): After the monsoon, Chhattisgarh experiences a post-monsoon season characterized by moderate temperatures and occasional showers. The weather gradually becomes cooler during this period.
- Winter (December to February): Winters in Chhattisgarh are relatively mild and pleasant. The average temperature during this season ranges from 10 to 25 degrees Celsius (50 to 77 degrees Fahrenheit). However, some parts of the state, especially in the northern hilly regions, may experience cooler temperatures.
Overall, Chhattisgarh’s climate is by its central location in India and its proximity to the Bay of Bengal. The monsoon rainfall supports agriculture and contributes to the state’s lush greenery and rich forest cover.
The major rivers flowing through Chhattisgarh include the Mahanadi, the Indravati, the Hasdeo, the Shivnath, and the Kharun. These rivers provide water for irrigation, and hydroelectric power generation, and serve as important transportation routes.
Chhattisgarh is known for its rich mineral deposits. It is one of the leading producers of coal, iron ore, limestone, bauxite, and dolomite in India. These mineral resources contribute significantly to the state’s economy.
Chhattisgarh is divided into 28 districts for administrative purposes. Some of the major cities in the state include Raipur (the capital city), Bilaspur, Bhilai, Korba, Durg, Raigarh, and Jagdalpur.
Chhattisgarh’s diverse geography, natural resources, and abundant wildlife make it an important state in central India.
Chhattisgarh is primarily situated on the Chhattisgarh Plain, which is part of the larger Deccan Plateau. The state is characterized by undulating plateaus with an average elevation of around 300-700 meters (984-2,297 feet) above sea level. The Raipur Plateau, Bilaspur Plateau, and Durg-Bastar Plateau are prominent landforms in the region.
Chhattisgarh is known for its extensive forest cover, which contributes to its biodiversity and ecological significance. The state’s forests are mainly categorized as tropical moist deciduous forests, tropical dry deciduous forests, and tropical thorn forests. Sal, teak, bamboo, and other species of trees are found in these forests.
Apart from rivers, Chhattisgarh has numerous lakes, reservoirs, and dams. Some of the major water bodies in the state include the Gangrel Dam on the Mahanadi River, the Hasdeo Bango Dam, the Dudhawa Dam, and the Udanti-Sitanadi Tiger Reserve Reservoir. These water bodies not only serve as sources of irrigation and hydroelectric power but also contribute to tourism and biodiversity conservation.
The southern part of Chhattisgarh is also by hill ranges and forested uplands. The Maikal Hills and the Bailadila Range are notable mountainous regions in the state. The Bailadila Range is also for its rich iron ore deposits and is an important mining area.
National Parks and Wildlife Sanctuaries
Chhattisgarh boasts several national parks and wildlife sanctuaries, which are important for the conservation of the region’s diverse flora and fauna. Some of the well-known protected areas include the Guru Ghasidas National Park, Indravati National Park, Kanger Valley National Park, Barnawapara Wildlife Sanctuary, Achanakmar Tiger Reserve, and Udanti-Sitanadi Tiger Reserve.
Caves-Geography of Chhattisgarh
Chhattisgarh is home to numerous natural caves that have archaeological and historical significance. The Kailash Caves in the Bastar region are for their ancient rock-cut architecture. Kutumsar Caves, Dandak Caves, and Kanger Dhara Caves are other notable cave systems in the state.
Agricultural Land-Geography of Chhattisgarh
The fertile plains of Chhattisgarh support agriculture, and the state is for its agricultural production. Paddy, wheat, maize, pulses, and oilseeds are some of the major crops in the region.
These geographical features contribute to the natural beauty, biodiversity, and economic resources of Chhattisgarh, making it an important state in central India.
Rivers of Chhattisgarh-Geography of Chhattisgarh
Chhattisgarh is blessed with several rivers and lakes, which play a crucial role in the state’s water resources, irrigation, and overall ecosystem. Here are some of the major rivers and lakes in Chhattisgarh:
The Mahanadi is the largest and most important river in Chhattisgarh. It flows through the eastern part of the state, originating from the Maikal Range and traversing a significant portion of Chhattisgarh before entering Odisha and eventually emptying into the Bay of Bengal. The Mahanadi is not only a lifeline for irrigation and drinking water supply but also offers opportunities for hydroelectric power generation.
The Indravati is a major tributary of the Godavari River and flows through the southern part of Chhattisgarh. It originates in the Kalahandi district of Odisha and forms a natural boundary between Chhattisgarh and Maharashtra before re-entering Chhattisgarh. The Indravati River is for its scenic beauty and supports diverse aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems.
The Hasdeo River is a tributary of the Mahanadi River. It originates in the Koriya district of Chhattisgarh and flows through the coal-rich regions of Korba and Bilaspur. The Hasdeo River is important for irrigation and provides water for industrial purposes.
The Shivnath is another significant river in Chhattisgarh. It is a tributary of the Mahanadi River and flows through the central and northern parts of the state. The Shivnath River is for irrigation, drinking water supply, and industrial purposes.
Dam-Geography of Chhattisgarh
Gangrel Dam is a major dam on the Mahanadi River in Dhamtari district. The reservoir formed by the dam, known as the Gangrel Reservoir, is one of the largest artificial lakes in Chhattisgarh. It serves as a source of irrigation, and drinking water supply, and supports fisheries.
These rivers and lakes in Chhattisgarh not only contribute to the state’s water resources but also add to its natural beauty and support various ecosystems and human activities.
Soil & Vegetation
Chhattisgarh Soil and Vegetation is both rich and diverse.
It is between 80° 15′ and 84° 20′ East of Longitude and 17° 46′ and 24° 5 North of Latitude.
It encompasses a total area of 136 lakh hectares of land, which consists of 58.81 lakh hectares of cultivable land area and 60.76 lakh hectares of forest land area.
The vegetation of Chhattisgarh comprises numerous varieties of horticultural plants, trees, crops like paddy, maize, pulses, and many more.
Some of the main trees in the forests of Chhattisgarh are Bija, Saja, Harra, Tendu, Teak, aura, Mahua, etc.
Agriculture is the main occupation of the people of Chhattisgarh where nearly 80% of the population is engaged in cultivation.
The major crop grown in Chhattisgarh is paddy, especially in the central plains of the state, popularly known as the rice bowl of central India.
Apart from paddy, other crops grown here are oilseeds, wheat, coarse grains, groundnut, maize, and pulses.
The soil of the state is suitable for the cultivation of horticultural plants guava, mango, banana, etc., and various types of vegetables.