The ancient history of Chhattisgarh can be divided into 5 parts which are as follows

prehistoric times
Vedic period
Buddha period
Maurya and Seven Vehicle Period
Gupta period

prehistoric times-history of Chhattisgarh

The prehistoric period is called the period in which humans did not keep any written evidence of any events happening at that time.

But, Many evidences of this period have been found from different areas of Chhattisgarh.

So, during this period man lived in caves.

Then made many paintings in these rock shelters, apart from this, various tools and monuments of this period have also been found in Chhattisgarh 

Rock paintings have been found from the following areas in Chhattisgarh:

Jogimara Cave

Jogimara Cave is in the Ramgarh Hills near Sansguja.

So, from where most of the paintings have been found in saffron colour.

The main paintings depicting social life along with animals, birds, trees etc. were found.

Sindhanur and Kabra Pahad

Rock paintings have been found from these places in Raigarh.

They are Red colored paintings from Singhanpur, in which hunting scenes have been found, and human figures, in the shape of straight sticks and in the shape of a ladder, have been found.

Kabara Pahad 

From here also various paintings have been found in red color which are symbolic paintings including lizards, jackals, sambar, other animals and human groups standing in a row.
Late Stone Age miniaturized stone tools have been found near painted rock formations located at Dhanpur in Bilaspur district and Sindhanpur in Raigarh district.

Neolithic period

Arjuni (painted hammers) which is located in the fort, has been found in Bontila near Rajnandgaon, Chitwadongri and a place called Teram in Raigarh.

Megalithic Monuments

Near the fort, remains of stone circles have been found in Karhi Bhadar, Chirachari and Sorar, in which huge boulders were used to bury dead bodies. Which was known as megalithic monument.

Wooden Pillars

In honor of the brave heroes, many wooden pillars have been found from Bastar region which were established in their honour. Monuments have been found from Masenar Dilamili, Chitrakoot Fort, Chingenar etc.

Pre-Stone Age- Mahanadi Valley, Singhanpur
Middle Ages- Kabra Mountains
Northern Stone Age- Mahanadi, Ghati, Ghanpur, Singhanpur
Neolithic Age- Arjuni, Chitwa Dongri, Bonlola, Teram
Iron Age stone pillars- Karhi Bhadar, Chirari, Sorar, Karka Bhata, Dhanora
Stone Age sites in Chhattisgarh
Pre-Stone Age: Raigarh’s Singhanpur, Kabra Pahar, Botalda, Chhapamada, Bhanwarkhol, Jidha, Sonbassa.
Mesolithic period: Garhghanaura, Gadchandela, Katipur, Rajpur, Bhatewara, Khadagghat, Ghatlohang.
Late Stone Age: Kabra Hills of Raigarh, Singhanpur, Mahanadi Valley, Dhanpur, Karmagarh, Basnajhar, Angana, Bolda.
Neolithic period: Arjuni (Durg), Teram (Raigad), Bontila, Chitwa Dongri (Balod, Sahagaon near Dondilohara)
Megalithic Age: Karhi Bhadar, Chirari (Fort)
Highest number of rock paintings in the state: Found from Raigarh district
Oldest rock shelter: Singhanpur (Raigarh)

Vedic period-history of Chhattisgarh

Vedic civilization is divided into two parts –

1. Rigvedic period (1500 BC to 1000 BC)

2. Later Vedic period (1000 BC to 600 BC)

No evidence of Rig Vedic period has been found in Chhattisgarh, in the later Vedic period, mention of Narmada has been found in the literature as Rewa river.

Later Vedic (100 – 600 BC) 

People of the Rigvedic period lived in the region of Punjab, then Punjab was a little in Pakistan, so the Aryans first settled on the banks of the Indus and Saraswati rivers (which we call Rigvedic Aryans). Answer The Vedic Aryans had moved towards the East, and during this time they had knowledge of iron. And along with this he had learned to use iron in farming. Now he started farming and he started staying at one place. And they started producing more and more in agriculture, and due to this the production increased and due to the increase in production the way of life (nomadic and nomadic) improved.

There was improvement.
The remaining three Vedas, Brahmin Aranyaka and Upanishad literature were composed in the later Vedic period. Note: It is from these literature that we get information about the later Vedic period. And we do not get information about the later Vedic period from literature alone, we get information about the later Vedic period through excavations.

Early Vedic period

No clear information is available about Chhattisgarh, but in the later Vedic period, this region is mentioned in Ramayana, Mahabharata and Puranas and information about Chhattisgarh can be seen in more detail.
During the Ramayana period, there was a powerful king named Kosala to the south of the Vindhya Mountains, hence this area was named Kosala.

It is known from the book Ramayana that the country of India was divided into two parts – the upper part is known as Dakshin Kosala and the lower part is known as Uttar Kosala (the area to the north is known as Uttar Kosala and the area to the south is known as Dakshin Kosala). . So whatever was in the south was part of Chhattisgarh. Where does it go that the king of Chhattisgarh was the father of Bhanumati and mother Kaushalya.

And Ram is the son of Mother Kaushalya, so when Bhanumat ji was ruling, then Maharaj Dashrath, who was Ram’s father, got this area and later it got included in Ram’s ruling area. Due to all these reasons, the evidence received shows that Chhattisgarh has been called Dakshin Kosala.

Note

King Bhanumant, whose daughter was Kaushalya, was Kaishalya, Kaushalya was the first among the three queens of King Dasharatha and the mother of Ram, Bhanumant did not have a son, hence the Kosala kingdom was merged into Dasharatha’s territory, thus it became a part of Ayodhya and Later, Ram became the ruler of this place also.
Most of the time of Ram’s 14-year exile was spent in this area. Ram had visited Shivrinarayan and had eaten the false berries of Sabari there.
Lava and Kush are believed to have been born in Turturia (Barnavapara), after Ram, Lava became the ruler of North Kosala and Kush of South Kosala. The capital of Kush was Kushasthal, and Chhattisgarh was part of South Kosala.

In Mahabharata

we find mention of Kosala, Kantar state which is also called Bastar in Chhattisgarh.
And there is evidence of the victory journey of King Nal and the victory journey of King Karna, and mention of Kosala is also seen in the context of Shishupala.
During the Mahabharata period, Meenpur, now known as Ratanpur, was the main center of this region, and Mordhwaj was the ruler here.
During the Mahabharata period, Sirpur, which was now called Chitrangadpur, was ruled by Panduvanshi Babhruvahana.
Adequate information about the geography and history of this region is available in mythological literature. According to mythological sources, this region was ruled by Ishva clans, and this region was given to Manu Vaivasvat’s grandson Vinatashva.
Mahatma Buddha came to South Kaushal “According to Avdan Shatak Granth”, this information is available from Hiuen Tsang’s travelogue.

Buddha period (6th century BC)-history of Chhattisgarh

Mahatma Buddha had come to South Kaushal, according to the book “Avdan Shatak” this information is available from Hiuen Tsang’s travelogue.

Maurya and Satavahana period-history of Chhattisgarh

Mauryan period inscriptions show that this area was dominated by the Mauyos,.

So, during the later Buddha period this area was first under the Nand dynasty.

However, later under the Maurya dynasty.

all this is clearly evident in the descriptions of Hiuen Tsang and the Mauryan period inscriptions of Sitabengra caves and Jogimara caves of Surguja district.

Marked coins of the Maurya period have been recovered from this area.

So,clear information about the Maurya period has been found from the remains of baked bricks and northern black polished utensils.
Coins of the Satavahana period were found from this region Bilaspur.

So, which indicates that after the Mauryas, the Satavahana dynasty of Pratishthan or Paithan (Maharashtra region) ruled this region.
According to Hiuen Tsang, the philosopher Nagarjuna lived near the capital of Dakshina Kaushal.
Later, probably the Meghvansh established control over this area.
After the Satavahanas, the Vakatakas emerged, the Vakataka ruler Pravarasena I established his authority over the entire area of South Kosala. India’s famous poet Kalidas stayed under his patronage for some time.

Gupta period-history of Chhattisgarh

The Prayag Prashasti of the Dakhari poet Hirshen of the Gupta emperor mentions Samudragupta’s religious conquest campaign of South India.

During this campaign, Samudragupta defeated Mahendra.

the ruler of South Kosala and Vyaghraraja, the ruler of Mahakantar (Bastar region), but the Guptas of this region Not merged into the empire.

Gupta period coins were in Banarad (District Durg) and Arang (District Raipur).

thus making it clear that the regional rulers here had accepted the supremacy of the Gupta dynasty.

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