The Indian pangolin (Manis crassicaudata) is a species of pangolin found in the Indian subcontinent.

Pangolins are unique mammals known for their protective keratin scales and diet consisting mainly of ants and termites.

Here are some key facts about the Indian pangolin:

Appearance of Indian pangolin

 Indian pangolins are small, solitary creatures with a distinctive appearance.

They have also elongated bodies covered in overlapping, protective scales made of keratin, which give them a scaly, armored appearance. Their scales are brownish in color.

Diet of Indian pangolin

 Indian pangolins primarily feed on ants and termites. They use their long, sticky tongue to extract insects from nests and tunnels in the ground.


IUCN Red List

The Indian pangolin’s conservation status on the IUCN Red List is continuously assessed, but it is crucial to continue efforts to protect this species and combat illegal wildlife trafficking.

So, Conservation organizations and governments in the Indian subcontinent are working together to raise awareness about the plight of the Indian pangolin and implement measures to safeguard their populations from poaching and habitat destruction.

Characteristics of Indian pangolins

Indian pangolins (Manis crassicaudata) possess several unique characteristics that distinguish them from other animals. Here are some key characteristics of Indian pangolins:


 Indian pangolins are covered in protective, overlapping keratin scales that make up their armor-like exterior.

However, These scales are of the same material as human fingernails and hair, and they serve as a defense mechanism against predators.


 Indian pangolins are relatively small to other pangolin species.

They typically measure between 50 to 65 centimeters (20 to 26 inches) in length, excluding their tail, which can add an additional 35 to 45 centimeters (14 to 18 inches).


 The scales of Indian pangolins are brownish in color, which helps them blend into their natural habitat. The scales on their underside are usually lighter in color.


Indian pangolins have prehensile tails, which means they can grasp and hold onto objects. This tail is used for various activities, including climbing trees, and for carrying their young.


 Their limbs are adapted for digging and foraging. Their front limbs are equipped with powerful claws that allow them to break into ant and termite nests in search of food.


Indian pangolins have no teeth in their mouth. Instead, they have a long, sticky tongue that can extend up to 25 centimeters (10 inches). They use this tongue to lap up ants and termites from their nests.

Nocturnal Behavior

Indian pangolins are primarily nocturnal, which means they are active at night. They spend their days resting in burrows or tree hollows to avoid the heat and sunlight.

Solitary Lifestyle

 These pangolins are generally solitary animals and do not form social groups. They come together only during the breeding season.


 Indian pangolins give birth to a single offspring at a time, and the young pangolin is carried on the mother’s tail for a period after birth.


These unique characteristics make the Indian pangolin a fascinating and distinctive species, but they also contribute to their vulnerability in the face of various threats, including habitat destruction and illegal wildlife trade. Conservation efforts are essential to protect and conserve this endangered species.

Distribution and habitat of Indian pangolin

The Indian pangolin (Manis crassicaudata) is primarily found in the Indian subcontinent, which includes countries such as India, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Bhutan, and parts of Southeast Asia. Here’s more information about its distribution and habitat:


 The Indian pangolin is native to various regions across India. It can be found in a range of habitats, including forests, grasslands, and agricultural areas. They are distributed across many states in India, from the northern Himalayan foothills to the southern Deccan Plateau.

Sri Lanka

 Indian pangolins are also found in Sri Lanka, primarily in forested areas. The Sri Lankan subspecies is known as Manis crassicaudata aurita.


 They are present in certain parts of Nepal, especially in the Terai region and the lowland areas of the country.


 Indian pangolins have been reported in Bhutan, particularly in the southern foothills and subtropical forests.

Southeast Asia

 While their primary distribution is in the Indian subcontinent, Indian pangolins can also be found in parts of Southeast Asia, including Thailand, Myanmar, and Bangladesh.

Habitat of Indian pangolin

Indian pangolins inhabit a variety of habitats, adapting to the local environment. Their habitat preferences include:


 They are often found in both tropical and subtropical forests. They use tree hollows and burrows as resting places during the day and for shelter.


 Indian pangolins can also be found in grasslands and savannas, where they forage for ants and termites.

Agricultural Areas

 In some regions, they may venture into agricultural areas, especially if these areas have termite mounds or ant colonies that provide a food source.


 Occasionally, they are found in wetland areas, but their primary habitats are terrestrial.

Urban and Human-Altered Environments

Due to habitat loss, Indian pangolins may occasionally venture into urban and human-altered environments, which can put them at greater risk of human encounters.

These pangolins are adaptable in terms of habitat use, but their survival is threatened by habitat destruction and fragmentation due to urbanization, agriculture expansion, and logging. Additionally, illegal wildlife trade and poaching for their scales and meat further endanger their populations. Conservation efforts, including habitat protection and combating illegal trade, are crucial for the preservation of the Indian pangolin.

Behaviour and ecology of Indian pangolins

The behavior and ecology of Indian pangolins (Manis crassicaudata) are intriguing and unique. Here’s an overview of their behavior, feeding habits, reproduction, and other aspects of their ecology:

Nocturnal Behavior

 Indian pangolins are primarily nocturnal, meaning they are most active during the night. They have several adaptations for nighttime activity, including well-developed night vision and a keen sense of smell, which helps them locate prey in the dark.

Solitary Lifestyle

 These pangolins are generally solitary animals, and they do not form social groups or live in pairs. They lead solitary lives, except during the breeding season when a male and female may come together for mating.

Terrestrial Habits

 Indian pangolins are primarily terrestrial, spending most of their time on the ground. They move slowly and deliberately, relying on their sense of smell and strong front claws to search for food.


 Their diet consists mainly of ants and termites. They use their long, sticky tongue to probe into ant and termite nests, and their strong claws help them break into these nests to access their prey. They consume a large number of insects daily, often feeding on several thousand ants and termites in a single night.

Scent Marking

 Indian pangolins are known to engage in scent marking, which involves rubbing their scent glands on objects in their territory. This behavior helps them establish their presence and territory boundaries.


 Breeding occurs during specific times of the year, usually during the monsoon season. Female pangolins give birth to a single offspring at a time. The young pangolin is carried on the mother’s tail for protection and transportation during the early stages of life.

Predation and Defense Mechanisms

 Indian pangolins are equipped with a unique defense mechanism. When threatened, they curl up into a tight ball, with their tough, overlapping scales acting as armor. This makes them challenging for predators to handle. In addition to their defensive posture, they may emit a foul-smelling fluid from their anal glands to deter attackers.

Shelter and Resting Sites

 During the day, Indian pangolins seek refuge in burrows, tree hollows, or dense vegetation. These resting sites provide protection from predators and the heat of the day.

Habitat and Range

 Indian pangolins inhabit a variety of environments, including forests, grasslands, agricultural areas, and occasionally urban areas. They have a broad range across the Indian subcontinent, from the Himalayan foothills to the southern Deccan Plateau.

Conservation Status

 Indian pangolins are classified as “Endangered” by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). They face significant threats, including habitat loss due to deforestation and agricultural expansion, as well as illegal poaching for their scales and meat.

Conservation efforts are critical to protect the Indian pangolin’s population and habitats. This includes the implementation of stricter wildlife protection laws, habitat preservation, and raising awareness about the importance of pangolin conservation to combat illegal wildlife trade.

Conservation of the Indian Pangolin

The conservation of the Indian pangolin (Manis crassicaudata) is crucial due to its “Endangered” status, driven by threats like habitat loss and illegal poaching.

Here are key strategies and initiatives for the conservation of Indian pangolins

Habitat Protection of Indian pangolin

Identify and designate protected areas, national parks, and wildlife sanctuaries that encompass Indian pangolin habitats.

Implement and enforce laws and regulations to safeguard these protected areas from illegal logging, land conversion, and other forms of habitat destruction.

Research and Monitoring of Indian pangolin

Conduct research on Indian pangolin ecology, behavior, and distribution to better understand their needs and threats.

Establish monitoring programs to track population trends, assess the effectiveness of conservation efforts, and respond to emerging challenges.

Anti-Poaching Measures for Indian pangolin

Strengthen anti-poaching efforts through increased patrolling and surveillance in pangolin habitats.

Train and equip law enforcement agencies and park rangers to detect and combat wildlife trafficking, including the illegal trade of pangolin scales and meat.

Public Awareness and Education about Indian pangolin

Raise awareness among local communities, stakeholders, and the general public about the importance of pangolins in ecosystems.

Educate communities about the illegality and harmful effects of pangolin poaching and the consumption of pangolin products.

Community Engagement and Livelihoods

Engage local communities in pangolin conservation efforts, involving them in decision-making and conservation activities.

Develop alternative livelihoods for communities that rely on activities harmful to pangolins, such as hunting and habitat destruction.

Legislation and Policy

Strengthen and enforce wildlife protection laws, ensuring that they include strict penalties for pangolin-related crimes.

Collaborate with international organizations and neighboring countries to combat transboundary wildlife trafficking.

Rescue and Rehabilitation

Establish rescue and rehabilitation centers to care for confiscated or injured pangolins.

Train wildlife rehabilitators and veterinarians in pangolin care and rehabilitation techniques.

Research on Breeding and Reproduction

Conduct research on pangolin breeding and reproduction in captivity to support potential reintroduction programs.

International Collaboration

Collaborate with international organizations and initiatives focused on pangolin conservation, such as the Pangolin Specialist Group and the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES).

Demand Reduction

Collaborate with governments, NGOs, and local communities to reduce the demand for pangolin products in traditional medicine and exotic pet markets.

Launch campaigns to inform consumers about the conservation status of pangolins and the consequences of their consumption.

Research into Alternative Medicine

Encourage research into alternative, sustainable sources for traditional medicines that use pangolin scales.

Promote the use of plant-based alternatives in traditional medicine practices.

International Advocacy

Advocate at the international level for stronger protection of pangolins, including raising awareness about their conservation status and the threats they face.

Conservation of the Indian pangolin requires a multi-faceted approach involving cooperation between governments, conservation organizations, local communities, and the international community. It’s vital to address both the supply and demand sides of the illegal trade and to protect their natural habitats for long-term survival.

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