Major Dynasties of Chhattisgarh
Different dynasties success in establishing regional political power in Chhattisgarh.
These dynasties are in different places in Chhattisgarh, but most of the areas are only up to the borders of the state, so they come under the category of regional dynasties.
The Rajtulyukul dynasty has the distinction of being the first regional dynasty of the state.
Major regional dynasties of Chhattisgarh
Major Dynasties of Chhattisgarh and their Founders
1. Rajtulyukul dynasty – Shura
2. Nalvansh – Varahraj
3. Sharabhpuri dynasty – Sharabharaj
4. Panduvansh – Udayan
5. Somvansh – Singhraj
6. Faninag dynasty – Ahiraj
7. Chhindak Nagvansh – Nripati Bhushan
8. Kakatiya Dynasty – Annam Dev
Major Dynasties of Chhattisgarh
1. Rajarshitulyukula dynasty-Major Dynasties of Chhattisgarh
This dynasty ruled South Kosala till the 5th-6th century.
The capital of this dynasty was Arang.
The copper plates of Bhimsen II are in Arang, according to which six rulers of Sur rulers ruled South Kosala in the 5th and 6th centuries.
These 6 rulers were – Sura, Dayit I, Vibhishan, Bhimsen I, Bhimsen II, and Dayit II.
He has been told in the Sanad that he belonged to a family which was no less than a Rajarshi-like clan.
So, his title is compared to the title of Rajadhiraj Shri in the Udayagiri cave inscription of Chandragupta II.
It is known from the copper plate that this dynasty used the Gupta Samvant, so they accepted the supremacy of the Gupta rulers.
2. Nal Dynasty-Major Dynasties of Chhattisgarh
On the basis of the history of India, on the basis of Vayu Purana and Brahman Purana, there is a mythological lineage of Nal rulers who ruled in the Kosala region. On an archaeological basis, the history of South Kosala begins in the fourth century, in which the first sutra path is the expansion of Samudragupta of Allahabad. starts from Inscriptions, copper plates, and gold coins show that the rule of Nalvansh rulers first started in Bastar.
There is no unanimity of scholars on when his reign started, how long it remained, and from where to where was the boundary of the state.
In 305 AD, evidence has been found of the rule of Vyaghraraj on Mahakantar. The beginning of their rule can be considered in Bastar as well. Their capital is Puskari. There was Puskar Nagar adjacent to the border of present Bastar.
The rule of this dynasty in Bastar was till 5th – 12th century.
The beginning of the Nal dynasty is believed to be from a king named Nal.
Varaghraj is considered the founder of Nal dynasty, the capital of this dynasty was Pushkari (Bhopalpatnam).
Nalvanshi Chief Ruler
Varahraj-Major Dynasties of Chhattisgarh
Reign – 400 – 440 AD.
The founder of Nalvansh is considered
29 coins of Varah Raj have been found in Endega village of Kondagaon Tehsil.
According to Mirashi’s script, Varaha Raj is considered to be the ancestor of Bhavadatta.
Reign – 440-465 AD.
The most talented ruler of Nalvansh was Bhavadatta Varman. Historians get its information from the coins issued by it.
He fought with the Vakatakas and drove them out of the kingdom from Kosala and expanded their empire and took control from Berar to Koraput.
Bhavdatta’s copper letter was received from Morshi area of Amravati district, in which information about his empire and his wife (Akali Bhattarika) is found.
Bhavadatta assumed the title of Maharaja.
He was a worshiper of Shankar.
The famous ruler of this dynasty was Bhavadatta Verma, who expanded his empire by ruling in Bastar and Kausal region.
The name of the copper plate of Bhavadatta Verma is Riddhi Purva copper plate,
Vilastunga was an important ruler of this dynasty.
Ruler Vilastung had built the Rajiv Lochan temple of Rajim, which is described in the Rajim inscription.
Rajiv Lochan Temple is the temple of Lord Vishnu,
His reign dates back to the 8th century.
Vilastunga was a contemporary of Pandu dynasty Mahashivgupta Balarjuna.
Reign – up to 460 -475 AD
Its information is available from the Kesaribeda copper plate.
It was defeated by the Vakataka ruler Prithvi Sen II. And Arthapati was killed fighting heroically.
Arthapati assumed the title of Bhattarak. Which is the title of Pallava dynasty.
Reign – 475 to 500 AD.
His main rule was in Bastar.
He was the brother of Arthapati, after his death he sat on the throne of Puskari.
After the destruction of Pushkari by the Vakataka king, the name of the capital was changed to Puskargarh Podagadh by reconstructing it.
Skandavarma built the Vishnu temple at Podagarh.
The Podagad inscription is the first inscription of the Nalas.
The most powerful ruler of this dynasty was
Nal dynasty rulers ruled Bastar and South Kosala for most of the time.
Some evidence of this dynasty – coins of Nal kings have been found in Erdega village of Kondagaon tehsil.
Four inscriptions of the kings of Nal dynasty have been found, out of which two have been found in Orissa, one in Amravati, and one in Raipur.
Vakataka king Prithvisena II captured Nalwadi Nal by defeating Nal Raja.
The rule of the Nal dynasty ended after being defeated by the Somvanshis.
Reflected Nal Naresh
After Skanda Varma, his son Nandraj became the king, whose education was initiated in Nalanda.
After Nandaraj, his son and then his grandson Prithviraj became the king.
Prithviraj’s reign is believed to be from 605 to 630 AD.
After this Virupaksha became the king, after that his son Vilasatung became the king.
Vilastunga built the Vishnu temple at Rajim.
Vilastung got the Rajeev Lochan temple constructed in the 7th itself.
Information about Virupaksha and Prithviraj is found in the Rajim inscription.
Nalvanshi copper plate
Riddhpur copper plate – Bhavadatta
Keshribeda copper plate – Arthapati
Rajim inscription – Vilastung
Podagad Inscription – Skandagupta
3. Sharabhpuri dynasty-Major Dynasties of Chhattisgarh
This dynasty is also called Amararya or Amaraj.
Reign – 6th century
Evidence – Eran inscription of Bhanugupta
Capital – Sharabhpur
Sub-capital – Sripur (Sirpur)
Sharabhpuri Dynasty chief ruler
His reign was in the 6th century AD.
After the name of their capital Sharabhpur, this dynasty was named Sharabh Puri.
Sharabharaj was the founder of this dynasty.
The mention of Sharabharaj is found in the “Eran column” (Gupta Samvat 510 AD) of the late Gupta ruler Bhanugupta.
Sarbhraj’s successor was Narendra.
Two copper plate articles of Narendra have been found in Kurud and Piprudula.
The third ruler of this dynasty was
It has gilded thin coins and silver coins on which Garuda conch and chakra marks are marked,
It coined its own name,
He had built the city of Prasannapur named after him on the banks of the Nidila river.
Presently the name of Nidila river is Leelagar river, and Prasannapur is named Malhar,
Jairaj ruled but soon he died.
After this, his brother Durgaraj Manmatra ruled.
was the successor of Durgaraj, who ruled,
He made Sirpur his new capital,
Pravarraj I established his capital at Sripur.
He was succeeded by Pravaraja.
Kauvatal inscription (Mahasamud) describes its feudatory Indrabal,
Copperplates of this ruler have been found which are present in the museum of Raipur.
Pravarraj – We have received its articles from Thakurdia (Saramgarh and Malhar)
The last and unworthy ruler of this dynasty was
In its time, Panduvansh and Somvansh had invaded, and Sharabh Puri dynasty was finished,
Pravarraj was defeated by Tivaradeva, the Somvanshiya ruler of Bhandak, and with this the dynasty came to an end.
Sudevraj’s vassal Indrabal laid the foundation of the Pandu dynasty by defeating Pravararaj II.
4. Pandu Dynasty-Major Dynasties of Chhattisgarh
Founder – Udayin
Capital – Sirpur
They had two branches in the state.
First – Panduvansh located in Maikal range which was the original branch
Second – Somvanshi of South Kosala who used to hold the title of Lingadhipati.
Reign – in the 6th century
Adipurush-Udayan (It is mentioned in Kalanjar inscription mp Jhansi)
He was a follower of Vaishnavism.
The first king of this dynasty was Udayan.
Its capital was Sirpur.
Mahashiv Teevar Dev
Tivaradeva was the mighty ruler of this dynasty, who had won the Kosala and Utkala and assumed the title of Sakal Kosaladhipati.
Pandu dynasty is considered to be the flourishing period.
Title – Sakalkosaladhipati
Evidence – From the inscription in the sanctum sanctorum of Laxman temple (Sirpur)
alias Nanand Dev II, its copper plates have been received from Sakki tehsil.
There is mention of hiding in a village donation in an Ashtadwar in a copper plate.
Marriage – with the daughter of King Surya Varma of Magadha (Maukhari dynasty)
Wife – Vasta Devi
Major construction – Laxman Temple of Sirpur with red bricks
Constructed by – Vasta Devi, wife of Harshgupta
There is a ruler of this dynasty, who married Vasta Devi,
His son was Mahashivgupta Balarjuna.
Time – 595 to 655 AD.
Evidence – 27 copper plates Sirpur
This period is called the Savarna era of Chhattisgarh.
Amazing metal idol of the era – Tara Devi
Major Buddhist center – Sirpur
Took the title of Param Maheshwar.
Mahashivgupta Balarjuna was well versed in archery in his childhood, due to which he came to be called Balarjuna.
He ruled for a long time, 27 copper plates of Mahashiv Gupta have been found in Sirpur, so many ancient copper plates have not been found of any ruler till now.
According to records it conquered the earth,
After Harshagupta’s death, during the reign of Mahashivgupta, his mother Vasta Devi built the famous Lakshmana temple at Sirpur in memory of her husband, Lakshmana Temple (temple of Lord Vishnu).
Sirpur was a famous center of Buddhism, this temple is the best temple of Gupta art made of stone.
Mahashivgupta ruled for 60 years.
He was a follower of Shaivism.
It was at this time that the famous Chinese traveler Hiuen Tsang visited Sirpur in 639 AD.
Hieun Tsang has described this region as “Kia-So-Lo” in his travelogue,
Two Buddhist Viharas were built during its time – Anandprabhu Kuti Vihara, Swastik Vihara
Mahashivagupta was a contemporary of Harshavardhana, the ruler of the Vardhana dynasty.
5. Somvansh-Major Dynasties of Chhattisgarh
There were two Somvansh in Chhattisgarh
1. Somavamsa of South Kosala-Major Dynasties of Chhattisgarh
After the end of the Pandu dynasty, the kingdom of the Somvanshi rulers was established on South Kosala around the 10th century AD.
He considered himself the master of Kosala, Kalinga and Utkala.
Some historians consider Somvansh as a branch of Panduvansh.
The first ruler of this dynasty was Sivagupta, who was a majestic ruler.
After this, Janmejaya Mahabhavagupta I became the king of Kaushal, who conquered Orissa and assumed the title of “Lord of Trikalinga”.
South’s king Rajendra Chola conquered Kosala and Utkal and took it under his control, later the later Somvanshi ruler Mahashiv Gupta recovered his territory.
The last ruler of this dynasty was Udyog Kesari.
During the revenue period of Udyog Kesari, in the 11th century, Lahurishakha of Kalchuri dynasty of Tripuri established authority over Dakshin Kosala.
2. Somvansh of Kanker
Somvansh was an ancient dynasty that ruled the Kanker (Bastar) region.
Information about this dynasty is obtained from the records obtained from Kanker and its surrounding places.
This record is of Shak Samvat 1242,
The first king of Somvansh was Sinharaj.
After Sinharaj – Vyaghraraj, Bopdev, Krishna, Jaitaraj, Somchandra, and Bhanudev ascended the throne.
Two copper plates of Pamparaj have been found in Tehelkapar, in which Pampraj’s father Somdev and Somdev’s father Bopdev are mentioned.
The Somvanshiya rulers of Kanker were ruling under Kalchuri (Mandalik) of Ratanpur.
CG I was ruled by two branches of Nagvansh,
Chhindak snake dynasty of Bastar
Faninag dynasty of Kawardha
6. Chhindak Nagvansh of Bastar
At this time the ancient name of Bastar was Chakrakut or Bhramarkut.
Bastar was ruled by Chhindaknagvanshi, they were also called Chhindak or Sidvanshi.
South Kosala was ruled by the Kalchuri dynasty, at the same time Chhindak Naga dynasty was ruling in Bastar,
Chhindak Nagvansho ruled in Chakrakot for 400 years, they continued to rule from the beginning of the tenth century till 1313 AD.
The first ruler of Chakrakot was Nripatibhushan, his time was 1060 AD, (It is mentioned in the inscription of Saka Samvat 445 (1023 AD) received from Arikot,
The second inscription of this dynasty is received from Barsur.
The capital of this dynasty was Bhogavatipuri.
Bastar was also called Kumbhavati.
Nagvanshi of Bastar used to wear the title of Bhogavati Pureshwar.
Madhurantak Dev was the third ruler of this dynasty.
Someshwar Dev I
He was the most capable ruler among all the rulers, he tried to establish a huge state on the strength of his might.
Someshwar I – had a conflict with Jajalyadev, the Kalchuri ruler of Ratanpur.
Jajalyadev had defeated Someshwar and made him a prisoner.
Someshwar Dev had built many temples,
Barsur was the important center of Chhindak Nagvansh.
In this period, many temples and ponds were built in Barsur, – Mama-Bhanja Temple, Battisa Temple, Chandraditeshwar Temple, etc. are the gift of this period only.
After the death of Someshwar, he sat on the throne, his tenure was till 1111-1122 AD.
After Kanhardev – Jai Singh Dev, Narasimha Dev, Kanhardev II became the rulers,
The last ruler of this dynasty was
It was defeated by Annamdev, the Chalukya of Warangal, and put an end to the Chhindak Naga dynasty.
7. Faninag dynasty of Kawardha
Phaninag dynasty, a branch of Nagvanshis, ruled in Kawardha from 9th – 15th century.
This dynasty used to accept the sovereignty of Kalchuri dynasty,
The details of this dynasty are found in the inscriptions of the ruined Madwa palace near Chauragaon and the records of the Bhoramdev temple.
In the Madwa Mahal inscription, the genealogy of the kings from the origin of the Faninag dynasty to Raja Ram Chandra is given.
The founder of the Phaninag dynasty is King Ahiraj.
Its rulers respectively are – Rajalla, Dharnidhar, Mahildev, Sarvvadan, Gopaldev, Naldev, Bhuvanpal, Kirtipal, Jaipal, Mahipal, etc.
Gopaldev – He established the temple of Bhoramdev in the 11th century (1089 AD),
Ramchandra Dev – Built the Madwa palace in the 14th century (1349 AD)
He was married to Ambikadevi, a princess of the Kalchuri dynasty.
8. Kakatiya dynasty
Chalukya Annamdev (Kakatiya) of Warangal defeated Harishchandra Dev, the ruler of Chhindaknag dynasty of Bastar in 1313 AD.
Annamdev came to power in 1324 AD, he built the famous Danteshwari temple in Dantewada
Their capital was Mandhota.
The rule of the Kakatiya dynasty continued till 1948 AD.
ruler of this dynasty
annamdev-Major Dynasties of Chhattisgarh
The main rulers of this dynasty were, their time was till (1324-1369 AD),
He married the Chandeli princess “Sonkunwar”.
The temple of Danteshwari Devi of Dantewada was built in village Tarala.
In folk songs, they were called “Chalki Bans”.
He shifted his capital from Chakrakot (Barsur) to Mandhota.
Reigned (1369 – 1410 AD) was
They are also described in the history of Orissa,
Reign (1410-1470 AD)
His wife Meghavati was expert in hunting.
In the memory of Meghavati today B Meghi saree is popular in Bastar.
Reign (1468 -1534 AD)
It shifted its capital from Mandhota to Bastar.
Started Bastar’s Dussehra, Goncha festival, Bastar’s Rath Yatra,
The king of Orissa gave him the title of Rathpati.
Reign (1602 -1625 AD)
Narasimha was the most majestic king after Dev,
During this time, the army of Kulikutb Shah of Golkund was defeated by the army of Bastar.
Jagdish Raj Dev
Reign (1625-1639 AD)
There were many fanatical unsuccessful attacks by Abdullah Qutb Shah of Golconda,
Veer Singh Dev
Reign (1654 -1680 AD)
He built the fort of Rajpur during his reign.
Reign (1709 -1721 AD)
In the Puranas of Bastar, his name is written as Rakshpal Dev.
He assumed the title of Pratap Chakravati
He was a worshiper of Danteshwari Devi (Manikeshwari Devi),
Reign (1721 – 1731 AD)
He belonged to the Chandela dynasty, and was the maternal uncle of the prince.
He was killed by Dalpat Dev.
Reign (1731-1734 AD)
During his reign Ratanpur state was under Bhonsle.
During this period Nilupant, the commander of the Bhonsle dynasty, invaded Bastar for the first time, and he failed.
It shifted its capital from Bastar to Jagdalpur in 1770.
It was during his reign that the trade of barter (jaggery, salt) by the Banjaras started.
Reign (1774-1777 AD)
Ajmer Singh is considered the messiah of Bastar revolution.
There was a war between Daryadev and Ajmer Singh, in which Ajmer Singh won.
During this time, the army of Company Sarkar, the head of Janson and Japar attacked from the east and the army of Nagpur under Bhonsle attacked from the west, in which Ajmer Singh was defeated.
Reign (1777-1800 AD)
He helped the Marathas by conspiring against Ajmer Singh.
On April 6, 1778 AD, Dariadev made Kotpad treaty, as a result of which Bastar came under Ratanpur under the princely state of Nagpur.
It had accepted the subordination of Marathas, and agreed to give 59000 takoli to Marathas every year,
In this time, Bastar Ch. Became a part of the Bhopalpatnam struggle in 1795 AD,
Captain Blunt was the first English traveler who traveled to the border areas of Bastar in 1795 AD, during his time, he could not enter Bastar but traveled to Kankar.
Reign (1800 -1842 AD)
He was the elder son of Dariadev, he refused to give takoli to the Bhosale dynasty.
Due to which the commander of Vyankoji Bhonsle attacked Bastar under the leadership of Ramchandra Bagh,
After the defeat of Mahipal Dev, in 1830, Sihawa Pargana had to be given to the Marathas.
Mahipal Dev was the first ruler of Bastar during the indirect rule of the British.
It was during this time that the rebellion of Paralkot took place.
Reign (1842 -1853 AD)
During his reign, the Meria Rebellion and the Tarapur Rebellion took place.
Dalganjan Singh was his half-brother, who was made the zamindar of Tarapur Pargana.
Reign (1853-1891 AD)
He was the first ruler under the British,
During its period in 1856 AD in Ch. Divisional commissioner Charles Elliot (the first European) came to Bastar,
Reign (1878 -1886 AD)
CG The first rebel woman was
Rudra Pratap Dev
Reign (1891-1921 AD)
He did his education from Rajkumar College, Raipur.
His mother was Prafulla Kumari Devi, he was coronated in 1908 AD,
He established the Rudrpratap Dev Library,
Built roads, and made Jagdalpur a city of intersections,
He was given the title of Saint of Jerusalem for helping the British in the European war.
In 1910 AD, there was a revolt of Bhumkal during his reign.
During his reign, the Ghatiponi system was prevalent, which was related to the sale of women.
Prafulla Kumar Devi
Reign (1922 -1936 AD)
CG was the first and only ruler of
Her husband was Prafulchand Bhanjdev, who was the prince of Mayurbhanj.
He died in London in 1936, he was suffering from appendicitis.
His son’s name was Pravirchand Bhanjdev.
Pravirchand Bhanj Dev
Reign (1936-1961 AD)
He was the last Kakatiya ruler who was coronated at the age of 12.
He was the youngest famous MLA, he died in a shootout in 1966.
In 1948, the princely state of Bastar merged with the Union of India.