The modern history of entire Chhattisgarh, contribution to Maratha, British, rebellion, the independence movement

The ancient name of Chhattisgarh was Kaushal.

Which was called Chhattisgarh because of the inclusion of thirty strongholds in itself.

Meghvansh, Baanvansh, Rajarshitulya clan, Parvdwarak dynasty, Nalvansh, Sharabhpuri dynasty, Pandu dynasty, Somvansh-Sirpur, Kakatiya dynasty, Pandu Vash- Maikal dynasties ruled here in Chhattisgarh.

The fort was an important unit in the Kalchuri rule. Kalchuri rulers ruled Chhattisgarh from 980 AD to 1791 AD.

Chhattisgarh was divided into 36 Garhs.

There were two branches of the Kalchuri dynasty in Chhattisgarh – Ratanpur and Raipur.

Modern History of Chhattisgarh

The state of Chhattisgarh called the rice bowl, has been the confluence of Aryan and non-Aryan cultures in India.

it is known from various sources that the history of Chhattisgarh is not ancient from the Mauryan period, but it is known from legends and epics such as the Ramayana and the Mahabharata.

Chhattisgarh has been associated in one way or the other with the political and cultural activities of India since ancient times or from Treta Yuga.

Kalchuri and Nagavanshi rulers ruled this region.

Kalchuris ruled Chhattisgarh from 980 to 1741.

After which the Marathas started the rule.

Historians believe that since then the modern history of Chhattisgarh begins.

Establishment of Maratha rule in Chhattisgarh-Modern history of Chhattisgarh

Marathas ruled Chhattisgarh from 1741 to 1854, after that Chhattisgarh came under British from 1854 to 1947. We will study the Maratha rule in Chhattisgarh in 6 ways.

Indirect Maratha rule (1741 to 1758)
Direct Maratha rule (1758–1787)
Suba Administration (1787–1818)
British rule (1818–1830)
Again Maratha rule (1830-1854)
British rule again (1854–1947)

 Indirect Maratha rule-Modern history of Chhattisgarh

Time period -1741-1758 AD

Raghunath Singh (1741–1745)

Bhaskar Panth did not rule.
Handing over the power to Raghunath Singh, he went away.

Mohan Singh (1745–1758)

Raghunath Singh was ousted and Mohan Singh was handed over the power.
He was the last Kalchuri ruler under the Marathas.

Direct Maratha Rule-Modern history of Chhattisgarh

Time period -1758-1787 AD

 Bimbaji Bhosala (1758-1787)

CG The first Maratha ruler was
Administrative Integration of Ratanpur and Raipur (1778)
Named the state of Chhattisgarh.
Started Marathi, Urdu, and Gondi scripts.
Established the court, and started the talukdari system.
Constructed new zamindaris named Rajnandgaon and Khujji.
He got the Ramtekari temple constructed in Ratanpur and placed his own idol.
Got the Dudhadhari Math renovated in Raipur.
Bimba Ji had two wives. 1. Uma Bai 2. Anandi Bai 3. Rama Bai
After the death of Bimba Ji, his wife Uma Bai was burnt alive in the funeral pyre with Bimba Ji in her arms.
Umabai’s sati chaure is located in Ratanpur.
Bimbaji Bhosala was the first Maratha ruler of Chhattisgarh under Raipur State.
He established a regular court at Ratanpur for judicial convenience and
During his reign, he built two new zamindars named Rajnandgaon and Khujji.
Construction of Ramtekari temple in Ratanpur and started the practice of giving gold letters on Vijay Dashami.
Cowrie currency was prevalent at this time, instead of it Nagpuri currency was introduced.
Bimba ji united Ratanpur and Raipur from the administrative point of view and gave the noun of the state of Chhattisgarh and got the Dudhadhari Math situated in Raipur reconstructed.
Bimbaji popularized the Marathi language, Modi script, and Urdu language here.
Bimbaji died in 1787, after which his wife Umabai committed sati.

 Suba Government-Modern history of Chhattisgarh

Time period -1787-1818 AD

This suba governance system established in Chhattisgarh was a reflection of the colonialist policy of the Marathas.
The Subedar used to conduct all the work by staying at the headquarters Ratanpur.
This post was neither permanent nor hereditary, their appointment was done according to the contractual practice. The person who promised to send the maximum amount from Chhattisgarh to Nagpur was appointed Subedar.
During this, a total of 8 subedars were appointed in Chhattisgarh.

Vyankoji Bhosla (1787–1811)

After the death of Bimbaji, Vyankoji got the state of Chhattisgarh.
Vyankoji decided to run the government by staying in Nagpur instead of doing direct rule by staying in the capital Ratanpur.
Vyankoji started ruling here through the subedars.
It was from here that the subedar system or provincial administration was initiated in Chhattisgarh.
This system existed till the British control in Chhattisgarh.
Vyankoji Bhosala, the founder of the Suba rule in Chhattisgarh, died in 1811 at Banaras.
CG Subedari system or Suba administration was started in
The entire responsibility of the administration was in the hands of the Subedar.
The post of subedars was not hereditary.
It was based on the contract system.

There were 8 subedars in

Mahipatrao Dinkar (1787-1790)

He was the first Subedar to be appointed in Chhattisgarh.
During his reign, a European traveler named Forester came to Chhattisgarh.
All the powers of its governance were in the hands of Anandi Bai, the widow of Bimbaji Bhosla.
At the same time the European traveler Forester C.G. came (1790).

Vitthalrao Dinkar (1790-96)

He was appointed the second Subedar of this region.
He is called the father of the Pargana system in Chhattisgarh.
This method continued from 1790 to 1818. Under this method, the ancient administrative unit was abolished and the entire Chhattisgarh was divided into parganas, whose number was 27.
The chief officer of the pargana was called Kamvisdar.
During its reign European traveler Captain Blunt had visited Chhattisgarh in 1795.
In 1795, Blunt administratively appointed C.G. The word was used in gregatire.

Bhavani Kalu (1796-97)

His tenure was the shortest.

Keshav Govind (1797-1808)

He was the Subedar of Chhattisgarh for a long period.
During this period European traveler Colebrooke (1799) had traveled to Chhattisgarh.

Vico Ji Pindri (Deero Kulkar)

He was a subedar for some time.

Bikaji Gopal (1809-1817)

During his reign, the Pindaris invaded.
During his reign, a subsidiary treaty was signed between the British and the Marathas.
Appa ji got Ch. Was made the Viceroy of

 Sitaram Tantia (Sarkar Hari)

Did not make any significant contribution.

 Yadav Rao Diwakar (1817-1818)

He was the last subedar during the state rule in Chhattisgarh.
Chhattisgarh came under British control from 1818 and the suba rule itself ended.
The Subedari system was prevalent during the Maratha rule (again after 1830, 1830-54).
The Marathas were defeated by the British in the third Anglo-Maratha war, as a result Ch. British rule started in

Appa Saheb (1816-1818)

After the death of Vyankoji Bhosla, Appa Saheb was appointed the new ruler of Chhattisgarh.
After his appointment, Appa Saheb demanded a huge amount from the then Subedar of Chhattisgarh, Bikaji Gopal (1809 -1817), but when Bikaji Gopal expressed his inability to give, Appa Saheb removed him from the post.

British rule-Modern history of Chhattisgarh

Time period -1818-1830 AD

For the first time in 1818 Ch. came under British rule.
Maratha rule ended in Chhattisgarh after being defeated in the third Anglo-Maratha war in 1818.
After this war, Chhattisgarh indirectly came under British control with the Treaty of Nagpur.
British Resident Jenkins announced arrangements in Nagpur state, according to which he had to take Nagpur state in his hands till Raghuji III attains majority.
With this announcement, the control of Chhattisgarh also went under British control.
Jenkins, the first British Resident of Nagpur, abolished the suba system and appointed British superintendents.

Captain Edmund (1818)

First Superintendent to be appointed in Chhattisgarh
They had to work under Nagpur Residents.

Captain Agnew (1818–1825)

His tenure was the longest.
He moved the capital from Ratanpur to Raipur in 1818.
In 1820 Ch. The first census was held in
He changed the capital from Nagpur to Raipur in 1818.
Raipur became the headquarters of the British Superintendent for the first time.
During his reign, Sonakhan’s zamindar Ramrai revolted in 1819 AD.
Gendsingh’s Paralkot rebellion also took place at this time.
Captain Agnew reorganized the 27 parganas of Chhattisgarh and limited them to only 8 parganas (Ratanpur, Raipur, Dhamtari, Durg, Dhamdha, Nawagarh, Rajhara, Kharod).
After some time Balod was also made a pargana, thus the number of parganas became 9.
The chief officer of the parganas was called kamvisdar.

Captain Hunter (1825)

Inter started in the English year 1825 in place of the Hindu-Muslim year.

Captain Sandys (1825–1828)

He made the English language the medium of government work.
CG Got the post office started.
English year was recognized in Chhattisgarh.
Had made two Tahutdari named Lormi and Tarenga.

Wilkinson (1828)

It was superintendent for some time.

Crawford (1828–1830)

CG was the last British Superintendent of
Maratha’s rule started again in 1830 after the agreement between the British and Raghuji III.

 Maratha rule again-Modern history of Chhattisgarh

Time period -1830-1854 AD

Raghuji III (1830–1853)

Chhattisgarh again went under the control of the Bhoslas when the Bhosala ruler Raghuji III came of age.
Bhosala officer Krishnarao Appa was entrusted with the administration of Chhattisgarh.
Krishnarao Appa was appointed the first District Collector of Chhattisgarh.
In 1830, British Superintendent Crawford handed over the administration of the region to Krishnarao Appa.
At this time the Bhosala rulers used to rule Chhattisgarh through the Zildar.
The headquarters of the district was Raipur, during this a total of 8 district were appointed.
He did Ch. Started the district system.
Total 8 District Collectors of Chhattisgarh –
Krishna Rao Appa (First District Collector)
Durga Prasad
Induk Rao
Sakha Ram Bapu
Govind Rao
Gopal Rao Zildar (Last Zildar)
Raipur was the headquarters of the Zilladars.
Gopalrao was the last Zilladar appointed by Bhoslo in Chhattisgarh.
Lord Dalhousie annexed the princely state of Nagpur to the British Empire under adoption prohibition.
The merger of the princely state of Nagpur with the British Empire was officially announced on 13 March 1854.
Raghuji III died in 1853, after which Dalhousie merged Nagpur with the British Empire in 1854 under his Harap policy.
CG Again joined the British rule.

The administrative system of Marathas

Maratha revenue system

The main source of income was land tax.

Land tax was determined at the village level and by the Subedar. The crop year used to start in the month of June.

The Marathas used the Nagpuri rupee in place of cowries.

Talukdari system was created for land tax.

Marathi was the official language at the time of Suba rule.

the taxation system of Marathas

1 plow = 2½ acres (1 hectare).
Takoli – was an annual tax.
Sawyer – Import-Export Tax
Kalali – Excise tax.
Pandri – Tax on non-agricultural work
vermicelli – crime tax
Zamindari Tax – Tax on imported grain.
Khalsa region – It was under the control of Marathas.
Zamindari Area – It was under the control of Zamindars.

Distance and measurement system of Marathas

1. distance
half a dhap = a hawk
one stroke = one curse
one kos = three miles
2. Measurement
One fohai = 49/16 hours
two fohai = one athelia
Two Aghotias = One fourth
four quarters = one katha
4 cups = 1 stick
twenty katha = one piece
twenty khandis = one cart

Maratha judicial system

The death penalty could be given by the Subedar.
Except Brahmin, Gosai, Bairagi, Female
Most of the army of Marathas were Muslims.
CG Muslims had arrived in India since the Maratha period.

Maratha era officer
Subedar – head of state
Kamavinsdar – Head of Pargana
Fadnavis – Accountant
potdar – cashier
Brar Pandey – Village Rent Assessor
Pandri Pand – Excise Officer
Gautiya – Village Chief
Patel – Associate in revenue recovery
Kotwal – village watchman
Chauhan – Village guard (detective)

 British rule again-Modern history of Chhattisgarh

Time period -1854-1947 AD

Charles C. Elliott

Chhattisgarh directly became a part of British rule in 1854 with the merger of Nagpur State with the British Empire.
On February 1, 1855, Gopalrao, the last Maratha district governor of Chhattisgarh, handed over the administration to the first deputy commissioner, Charles C. Elliott, the representative of the British rule.
His jurisdiction was the same as that of Mr. Agnew during the British control.
Under the British rule, the entire Chhattisgarh province was given the status of a district, whose chief officer was called the Deputy Commissioner.
In Chhattisgarh, the Deputy Commissioner initiated the Tehsildari system here.
Three tehsils were created in Chhattisgarh district – Raipur, Dhamtari and Ratanpur.
On February 1, 1857, the tehsils were reorganized and their number was increased to 5.
Raipur,Dhamtari,Ratanpur,Dhamdha.Nawagarh. After some time Durg was made Tehsil headquarter in place of Dhamdha.
For administrative convenience, on November 2, 1861, a “Central Province” was formed by combining Nagpur and its subordinate areas and its headquarter was kept at Nagpur.
1893 – Rajkumar College was established in Raipur.

Charles C. Elliott

CG He was the first Deputy Commissioner of
He Ch. I have got many works done.
After his death, he was buried in Salhar (Raigarh).
He secured the post of Assistant Commissioner and Additional Assistant Commissioner.
Gopal Rao was appointed as Additional Assistant Commissioner for Bilaspur.
Mobibul Hasan has been appointed as Additional Assistant Commissioner for Raipur.
CG The administrative system of Punjab was implemented in
During the British period, the revenue year was from 1st May to 30th April.

British carpet works

Constitution of Tehsils

CG Three tehsils were formed in 1854 –
1. Raipur
2. Ratanpur
3. Dhamtari

In 1857 the number of tehsils was increased to 5 –
4. Dhamtha
6. Nawagarh

After 8 months, Durg was made Tehsil in place of Dhamdha.
The posts of Tehsildar and Naib Tehsildar were reserved for Indians.
formation of districts

CG Three districts were formed on 2 November 1861
1. Raipur
2. Bilaspur
3. Sambalpur (moved to Orissa)
4. Durg (1905)

division formation

CG was made a division in 1862.
Central Provinces and Berar were formed on 2 November 1861 and 5 divisions were formed in the Central Provinces in 1862, in which Ch. there was one.
Nagpur was the capital of the Central Provinces.

police system

Police Manual was implemented in 1858 (IPC, CIPC, CRPC)
Appointed Superintendent of Police in 1862.
Police system was implemented in 1862.
There were 15 thanas in a tehsildari area.

prison system

Raipur Jail was built in 1854.
Bilaspur Jail was built in 1873.
In 1862, a regular doctor was arranged for the health of the prisoners.

train system

Mumbai-Howrah rail line was added in 1900 AD, in which Ch. came.
Connected to Raipur by Dhamtari narrow gauge.
CG The railway line was constructed by the Bengal-Nagpur Railway Company.

Postal system

The carrying of letters was done by horses.
First Post Master of Raipur Post Office Lt. Smith was
Stamps and stamps bearing the portrait of Queen Victoria were issued.

currency system

The Nagpuri rupee was discontinued and the British rupee was introduced.
The Nagpuri rupee was considered equal to a hundred rupees of the Company.
Six months’ time was given for the exchange of rupees.

road system

In 1862 G.E. The (Great Eastern) road from Nagpur to Sambalpur was built. (N.H.6)
Now N.H. Known as 53.

industry system

In Rajnandgaon C.P. Mill was installed.
C.P. The builder of the mill is Mr. of Mumbai. J.V. McVeith was
He sold this mill in 1897 to M/s Shavalis Company, Calcutta.
Then C.P. The name of the mill was changed to B.N.C. Mill was named.

Revolt of 1857 in Chhattisgarh

Sonakhan Rebellion (1856)

Establishment – In 1490, Bisai Thakur Binjhwar established Sonakhan Zamindar.
Leadership – The Zamindar of Sonakhan was Veer Narayan Singh Rajput.
Reason – To provide food to the famine victims, Veer Narayan Singh looted grains from the godown of Makhan Lala trader of Kasdol.
Arrested – On 2 December 1857, Captain Smith did it from Sonakhan.
Cheating – The landlords of Bhatgaon, Bilaigarh, Deori and Katgi supported the British.
Hanging – On this charge, he was hanged on December 10, 1857 at Jaistambh Chowk in Raipur.
Superintendent – Charles Elliott
Martyr – Ch. He is called the first martyr of the freedom movement.

The Rebellion of Surendra Sai

Location – Sambalpur (Orissa)
Leadership – Surendra Sai Chauhan (Zamindar of Sambalpur)
Reason – Locked in Hazaribagh Jail due to succession war.
During this, Veer Narayan Singh’s son Govind Singh was with him.
He escaped from jail on 31 October 1857.
Punishment – Arrested in 1864 and sent to Asirgarh fort.
Where he died in 1884 after a lot of torture.
Ch.G. He is called the last martyr of the freedom movement.

Sohagpur Revolt (15 August 1857)

Location – Surguja
Leadership – Rangaji Bapu
Opponent – British
Military or Sepoy Mutiny (18 January 1858)
Location – Raipur
Leadership – Hanuman Singh Police (Rajput of Baiswara)
Designation – Was posted in the post of Lashkar-e-Magazine of the 3rd Battalion of the Army in Raipur.
Reason – The Revolution of 1857 had an impact.
Murder – His senior officer Sergeant Sidwell was shot dead.
Hanuman Singh escaped but 17 of his companions were arrested and hanged.
Note – Hanuman Singh got Ch. Ka Mangal Pandey says.

Rebellion of Saranggarh

Location – Raigarh
Leadership – Kamal Singh
Opponent – British
Udaipur Rebellion
Establishment – Surguja
Leadership – Kalyan Singh
Opponent – British

Indian National Congress in Chhattisgarh

National Unity Period (1857–1885)

After the defeat in the revolution of 1857, a feeling of mutual unity was awakened.
Everyone understood that we lost the revolution of 1857 because of mutual differences.
Congress session in Bombay (1889)
In this Ch. 5 people attended
Madhav Rao Sapre
Vaman Rao Lakhe
Ram Dayal Tiwari
Badrinath Saw
C.M. Thakkar

Congress session in Nagpur (1891)

In this session also Ch. Leaders participated in large numbers.
The president of this session was P. Anand Charlu, a lawyer from Madras.
Samitra Mandal (1906)
Pt. Sundarlal Sharma formed the Samitra Mandal.
CG Establishment of Congress in (1906)
In 1906 Ch. Congress was established in
Meanwhile, Pt. Sundar Lal Sharma joined the Congress.
Those who joined the Congress Ch. Was the first person from

Surat Session (1907)

CG K Congress split into two parts 1. Extremists 2. Moderates

moderate leader

Pt. Sunderlal Sharma
Dr. Shiv Ram Munje

Hari Singh Gaur (Dr.)
Dr. Magholkar
hot party leader
Pt. Ravi Shankar Shukla
Madhavrao Sapre
Dadasaheb Khaparde
Raipur Provincial Conference (1907)
Chairman – Dr. Kelkar

Receptionist – Dr. Hari Singh Gaur.

Khaparde suggested starting the conference with Vande Mataram.
This was opposed by the soft party and Khaparde left in anger.
First Student Strike (1907)
Venue – State High School Rajnandgaon
Leadership – Thakur Pyare Lal Singh
Jail to Madhavrao Sapre (1908)
Sapre was influenced by Tilak’s Maratha and Kesari magazines.
Published Hind Kesari in 1907.
This magazine used the words Purdev and Bomb shells of the country. Because of this he went to jail.

Saraswati Library (1909)

Location – Rajnandgaon
Founder – Thakur Pyare Lal Singh
Purpose – For national consciousness.
Present – Digital library has been created.
Kavyakumbja Sabha (1912)
Pt. Ravi Shankar Shukla had formed the Kavyakumbj Sabha.
Goods Passers’ Conference (1915)
A conference was held by 250 goods passers-by in the town hall of Raipur.
Home Rule Movement (1917)
CG Only the Tilakist movement was active in
In 1918, Tilak and Gopal Krishna Gokhale came to Raipur.
Home Rule Leagues were established in different cities.
The conference of the league was held in Raipur in 1918 and the members were more than 1700.
Raipur – Pt. Ravi Shankar Shukla, Moolchand Bagdi, Sapre, Laxman Rao were Udgirkar.
Bilaspur – E. Raghavendra Rao, Kunj Bihari Agnihotri, Gajadhar Saav, Ambika Prasad Verma, Munni Lal Swami, Govind Tiwari etc. were there.
Durg – Ghanshyam Singh Gupta
Rajnandgaon – Thakur Pyare Lal Singh
Provincial Conference at Raipur (1918)
E. Raghavendra Rao and C.M. Thakkar was made a member of the Congress Committee.
Gopal Krishna Gokhale was present in this conference.
Note – Pt. Sundar Lal Sharma in 1918 Ch. was clearly conceived.

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